The different investment models, such as debentures, are increasingly part of the daily life of UK citizens, who have been deepening the subject and betting on the sector to generate extra income. If you are interested in investing your money, there are a few steps to follow.
There are several types of investors, from those who do not mind taking a big risk, such as the stock exchange, to those who do not leave the traditional savings. That is why, understand your profile in this market is the first step to understand which is the best option.
After that, it is essential to know the modalities and understand your needs, for example, when you will need to use the money invested. In this article, we will talk about the debentures, a record-breaking format in 2021, with more than R $ 33.78 billion issued.
We will cover:
- What are debentures ?;
- What are the types of debentures in Brazil ?;
- What is the profitability of the debentures ?;
- How to invest in the modality ?;
- What is the best option ?;
- How to declare income?
Come on and have a good reading!
What are debentures?
These are corporate debt securities, that is, by investing in a debenture, you are lending money to companies, which cannot be a financial or real estate credit institution.
They were created in 2011 by Law No. 12,431, in order to finance infrastructure projects, increase capital or settle debts.
The debentures have fixed income, which means that by applying an amount, it is possible to know exactly what the profit will be at the end of the period. Usually, they are indicated for those who want to vary the formats of investments and are purchased directly from the company.
In the past, it was a less accessible modality, since the initial investment amounts were high, but, little by little, it became simpler for individuals to invest in debentures.
Despite being a fixed income modality, there is a certain risk depending on the value of the income. Therefore, understand your investor profile (conservative, moderator, bold, aggressive).
They differ from stocks because they have fixed income, while investing in stock Exchange presents variable profit. In addition, when you buy a share you become a partner and receive earnings, while in debentures, you receive the money that you lent plus the combined rate.
To learn more about investments on the stock exchange, visit that article on our blog.
What are the types of debentures in Brazil?
Before investing, you need to understand the two types of debentures available in Brazil: simple and convertible.
In this modality, at the end of the determined period of the investment, it is possible to transform the income into shares of the company on the stock exchange.
Here, it is not allowed to transfer income in shares at the end of the investment.
They are issued in order to carry out infrastructure projects and, in this case, there is no income tax exemption. In this format, the yield is usually higher.
Income tax is levied on the amount accumulated in the period and not on the total amount invested, according to the regressive table below:
|Up to 6 months
|From 6 to 12 months
|From 12 to 24 months
|More than 24%
Although it seems advantageous, convertibles are not always better, as it depends on the rate of return agreed between the debenture holder and the company.
What is the profitability of the debentures?
There are three types of profitability in this type of investment: post-fixed, fixed-rate and hybrid.
Yield depends on market indicators such as Selic and the CDI. Therefore, it is not possible to predict the return when redeeming the application, since they are variable rates.
When you buy the credit title in the company, the rate of return will already be defined, that is, the value of the yield is known at the beginning of the process.
This format merges a fixed rate with a variable indicator, IGP-M and IPCA, for example. It is a modality that attracts debenture holders a lot, since there is a fixed gain and an extra income from variable rates.
How to invest in the modality?
Just like investing in the stock exchange, it is necessary to open an account with a specialized broker, so do a search for the most reliable and lowest maintenance rates.
After this step, you must transfer the amount you wish to invest from your traditional account to that of the broker. Then, access the fixed income option on the website, select debentures and choose the best investment available at the moment.
Do not forget to calmly evaluate the conditions of each one, according to your need to use the income.
Applying with investment fund
It is also possible to invest in debentures using investment funds and is more suitable for those who are familiarizing themselves with the market, as your money will be managed by professionals.
However, as it is an indirect investment, you will not be able to buy or sell your debentures whenever you want, depending on the manager's performance. In this case, just access the investment fund platform and select debentures.
What is the best option?
It is quite common for investors to be concerned only with the rate of return at the end of an application. However, it is also necessary to assess the credit risk rating (rating) of each company.
This score, which varies from A to D, indicates the probability that the company will honor its debts, with A being the best score and D being the worst rating. The higher the score, the more reliable the institution is. Therefore, knowing these details makes all the difference in the success of your investment.
How to declare income?
It is worth mentioning that having debentures does not oblige the investor to declare income taxhowever, if you meet any of the criteria below, you need to include the debentures in your statement:
- Has activity on the stock exchange in the period;
- It owns assets (such as a car, own house and income) above R $ 300 thousand;
- Received exempt annual income above R $ 40 thousand;
When making the declaration, select “Assets and rights”, look for “Fixed income investment” and describe the type of investment you purchased. Repeat the procedure for all your applications.
As you can see, investing in debentures is not complicated and can guarantee good returns for investors, needing only research and analysis to reap good rewards. Therefore, check if it is the best option and clarify your doubts before investing your money.
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